Regenerating the five historical periods (designing an urban trail as a historical timeline)
The main idea is to travel through the history of Lima. The park is divided into five parts according to the Lima's five historical periods (the Limas, the Waris, the Ychmas, the Incas and the contemporary period).
Each part represents the characteristics of the relevant era. Therefore, in the first period (Lima) forms, materials and even the functions have been inspired the design of the platforms and the stage of the amphitheater. In the second part, water, fog and the spiral path remind the ambiguity of the Waris era.
The third part comprise of a combination of 15 pyramids and connecting ramps retrieved from the architecture of the Ychmas. The 2km long road provides a place for parades and carnivals. The rising elements, detailed artworks and picturesque gardens represent the period of the Incas. The Sun Plaza and the Machu Picchu Garden are designed to celebrate their power and glory.
The space near the national museum is conceived with modern sculptures, high-tech elements and exquisite details to produce an image of the future Peru.
Inspiring from traditional motifs
The forms of plazas and gardens have been inspired from the motifs in Peruvian textile, carpets, architecture and painting. The aim is to design a coating landed on the site like a traditional Peruvian embroidered fabric.
Promoting public participation and city-park communication
Various activities proposed in order to increase social participation throughout the park, including community gardens meant to attract the local people, marketplaces, urban galleries and places for street arts.
Considering several entrances around the site facilitate the access to the park. The forms of the gates have been inspired from the traditional architecture of Peru combined with contemporary paintings.
Communal gardens and sports fields are aimed to connect the park to the neighborhood. Thereupon, the neighbors would be the main guardians of the park with their strong sense of belonging.
In addition, multifunctional spaces provided under the connecting bridge will be available for the residents of surrounding neighborhoods to be used for social and communal activities.
Using Indigenous and environmentally friendly materials and temporary structures
The Rammed earth system has been used as the main construction system in the site. This system is eco-friendly and cheap, and the material is recyclable and repairable. In addition, there is o no need for specialized machinery and expensive labor.
For functions such as offices, sanitation and security stations, pre-made insulated furnished containers have been proposed. They are easy to transport, install and uninstall. They cause no harm to the site and are suitable the climate of Lima.
Producing water out of the air humidity
Instead of using potable water, two types of active (turbines) and passive systems have been proposed to provide water from the air either for drinking or plant irrigation.
Since the amount of rainfall on the site is extremely low, it is intended to ward off the surface runoff to the gardens. In addition, in high slope areas with flood risk, vegetation has been proposed to help stabilize the soil.
Topography adapted pathways and bridges
The slope of the main path all over the site corresponds to the topography and is 5 % maximum, suitable for both pedestrians and cyclists. The length of the path has been increased by winding it up in high gradient topography. The paths are divided into three main degrees. The first-degree paths are 20 to 30 meters wide provide the possibility of passing vehicles in an emergency. The second-degree paths are 5 to 10 meters wide, connecting the main route to the places and plazas. The third-degree paths are 1.5 to 3 meters wide inside the gardens.
To connect the two parts of the project divided by Lima Avenue, a gentle slope bridge has been proposed across the road. It seems that the main route is raised from the ground. This concept has also been implemented for the connecting bridge between two museums.
Variety of Activities within a continuous integrated space
Diverse functions such as cultural, social, sport and other recreational activities are located in a way that provide ease of access for various groups of potential users. Furthermore, the diversity of activities makes the park attractive for all age groups, and the playful spaces amuse children and teens.
For management and maintenance, assigning each adjacent user to take care of their surrounding area is suggested. In other words, in this park public spaces will be privately owned by the staff of each area or activity. In addition, the idea of multi-functional spaces has been run in some part of the space. For example, the market place would be allocated to a street food court after the sunset.
Two types of internal and external fences are designed in accordance to five main zones and aimed to provide the visual continuity. The internal fences comprise of a combination of stone and glass gibbons, cactuses, colored straws and steel strips. For external glazing, several facilities proposed to adjoin the street create a variety of facades. The entrances are painted in two frames inspired from the historical site. For the rest of the park, the pattern of the site's existing concrete fences will continue combined with climbing plants.
Visual continuity and viewpoints
The visual continuity has not been blocked in any part of the site and there is always a panoramic view to the park and the historical site. The highest place on north-east is defined as a viewpoint and several binoculars will be installed in the northern part. Furthermore, in the modern zone, a balloon is considered to be lifted from the ground providing a magnificent view of the linear park, the historical site, the surrounding environment and the ocean.
Xeriscape as planting approach
As the fundamental planting strategy, we have tried to select species that have little water requirement and native plants. Concurrently, in order to develop seasonal variety, an irrigation system has been designed to provide water out of the air humidity in both active and passive ways.
Nightlife, nocturne landscape and lighting
Because of the adequate sunlight on the site, photovoltaic panels are proposed to supply electricity and to provide as much light as possible for general lighting and security. In the main route and the areas with nocturne activities, lighting is limited to the active area to reduce power consumption and facilitate the management and maintenance.
In the second zone luminous mulching is proposed to improve the sense of place. In the fourth zone, in the dream garden, a special colorful illumination has been provided.
The shape of lamps will vary depending on the atmosphere in which they are located. For ground lamps that illuminate the main route, movement sensors are considered to shut the light off while there is no passer-by in order to reduce energy consumption and light pollution for plants and animals.
Wind and sun control
Since the prevailing winds are coming from the south and southwest, several disperse wind walls are designed in the fourth zone. The shading trees throughout the site have been used beside fabric lattice shelters, canopies and tents
There are four possible sitting spaces in the site. Throughout the main route there are oval-shaped rotating platforms with a shading tree in the center providing shadow almost every hour of the day. Throughout the site and alongside the internal fences, the rammed-earth benches are designed. The picnic platforms and tables are located in the northern part of the site. Each cafe can also have its own tables and chairs according to their own design taste. In addition, in most plazas are there are stairs that can be fitted to sit.
The furniture additionally includes map boards, orientation signs, information panels, cactus-shaped waste baskets (for different types of garbage). There are drinking fountains and large recycle bins located next to the sanitary facilities. There are also several birdbaths provided in the middle of gardens and beside water facilities.
In construction of the fences, platforms and some other parts, the waste and rubble in the site would be used as a filling material. Moreover, there are some wastes such as car tires and bicycle wheels that are considered as flower boxes or land art elements.
Landscaping for Nesting Birds
The essential needs for the birds have been provided on the site. But beside food and water, they require a zone so that the presence of humans does not interfere with their habitat. In addition, the reduction of light pollution at night has been taken into account in order to maintain the natural rhythm of the birds' body. The restoration of the Southern Wetlands requires more information for analysis.
Economic incentive programs
The use of BOT systems and limited tax break policies can be effective for attracting capital from potential private investors and boosting the park. Also, the use of voluntary contributions from indigenous labor and social capital of NGOs located on the site can reduce costs. The improvement of the sense of belonging in the residents of surrounding neighborhoods constitutes a step towards reducing the cost of maintenance.
Steps to run
There are eight steps proposed to implement this project, which can be merged with the previous or next steps due to the builder's capabilities.
The first step is construction of the part of the project located adjacent to the museum toward the labyrinth. Obviously, on the scale of the museum itself, a complementary landscape design would be mandatory.
The second step involves running multi-sports grounds and community gardens. This step can prevent contamination to the site by attracting the companionship and participation of neighbors in addition to improving the security on the site. The construction of the connecting bridge between the two museums, as well as the bridge connecting the two parts of the park, is proposed in this step.
The third step is the construction of the marketplace and the continuation of the western route from the labyrinth to the LIMA Bridge. Next, the eastern part of the park begins to run. Implementing the amphitheater and the cafe attracts public attention to the site by performing events and concerts, in addition to making income. The following step is to complete the main route of the park on the eastern side (between amphitheater and the marketplace). The sixth step is to complete the western part of the site. The completion of the northern and eastern crossovers is in the next stage, and in the final step, the balloons will be added to the project.
In addition, in each phase, for the part that is completed, a temporary entrance is embedded until the lateral part is completed and the two parts can be connected together.
Municipality of Lima
Mohammadreza Mehrabani Golzar, Atie Ghafouri, Ehsan Shariatmadari, Taravat Nourian, Reza Aghaei
, Maryam Taheri, Pouria Zamani